Terms and Definitions
Dan W. Cozart
††††††††††† Several months ago, one of my church members approached me and requested a compilation of terms and definitions be developed and made available to the membership.† My friend reminded me that many terms are used from the pulpit of which our church has no knowledge.† Since our ministry is one of theological teaching as well as evangelistic preaching, I considered his request and point well taken.† After much time in prayer and planning, I decided to put together what I call An Abridged Study of Theological Terms and Definitions.
††††††††††† First, let me say it is truly abridged both in terms and definitions.† I most certainly have not exhausted the storehouse of various words and terms in the Bible and theology; however, I have tried to include those most frequently used.† The definitions are also shortened, yet hopefully to the point.
††††††††††† Wars have been fought over semantics and misunderstandings.† I am again reminded of how very important it is for teacher and student to be on the same communicative frequency if truth is imparted and received.† It is my prayer this booklet will achieve that goal.
Dan W. Cozart, Pastor
Grace Baptist Church
August 1, 1996
††††††††††† An act whereby God places the believing sinner into the family of God as a son.† A Child of God has to do with the believerís relationship to God in the family.† A son of God deals with the believerís position in the family of God (Galatians 4:4-5; Romans 8:15).
††††††††††† Any water baptism which is foreign to the teachings of the New Testament which would include improper authority, purpose and doctrine.
††††††††††† The belief which denies the literal reign of Christ on earth for a thousand years.
††††††††††† The term Anabaptist means re-baptizer.† They were called this because they refused to accept the baptism of infants and demanded those only be baptized who were old enough and willing to profess faith in Christ.
††††††††††† This teaching denies the eternal punishment of the wicked in Hell-fire.
††††††††††† Expressing the person of God in human terms, or as you would express the person of man such as the eyes of God.
††††††††††† Expressing the feelings and emotions of God in human terms such as it repented the Lord that He made man.
††††††††††† One who believes the entire law of God including the Ten Commandments are dead and not relative to New Testament believers.† The Greek is anti-nomos meaning no law.
††††††††††† The teaching of Arius (250-336 A.D.), He denied the eternal Sonship of Jesus Christ and His equality with God.† The best example today is the Jehovahís Witnesses.
††††††††††† James Arminius (1560-1609 A.D.) was a Dutch theologian who believed the sinner must assist God in his salvation through free will.
††††††††††† It deals with falling away or back from a previously held position of truth (II Thessalonians 2:3).
††††††††††† This word is confined to the Old Testament.† It comes from the Hebrew word. Kaphar, meaning to cover.† The forgiveness of sins is based upon the shedding or covering of blood.† Thus, the atonement is the result of Christís death at Calvary (Hebrews 9:11-12,22).
ATTRIBUTES OF GOD
††††††††††† Those virtues and characteristics of God that make Him God.† God is love, holy, just and merciful.† These are some of His attributes.
††††††††††† The belief that man must be baptized in water in order to be regenerated.
††††††††††† John Calvin was born in France in 1509 A. D. and became the father of Presbyterianism; however, being a Calvinist among Baptists means one subscribes to the doctrines of Grace.† Such a Baptist would be a Calvinist only so far as soteriology is concerned.
††††††††††† Those who major in gifts and minor in the Giver.† Most charismatics believe the evidence of the Holy Spirit is speaking in an estatic utterance.† Their beliefs are determined by experience and feeling rather than by the fact of Godís Word.
††††††††††† The study which deals with the person and work of Jesus Christ.
††††††††††† The New Testament church is an assembly of voluntarily baptized believers in Christ assembled for the purpose of carrying out the commands of Christ.† The church is always local and visible, never universal and invisible.† The Greek is ekklesia meaning ďcalled out ones.Ē† The Greeks used it to denote a called out assembly, or an assembly of called out ones (Acts 2:41,47).
This refers to the common goodness and benevolence of God which He bestows upon all His creatures, saved or unsaved (Matthew 5:45).
This teaches that the body and blood of Christ are mystically and invisibly united in the elements of the Lord's Supper. This is the Lutheran position.
The term means a change, and refers to the change which takes place in a sinner who has been regenerated; namely, repentance from sin and faith in Christ (II Corinthians 5:17).
This teaches that regeneration comes as a result of the sinner's decision to let Christ save him.
Contrary to many who believe God has two ways for man to saved; namely by law and grace, it means God has dealt differently with His people during different time periods (Ephesians 1:10).
DOCTRINES OF GRACE
1. Total Depravity
2. Unconditional Election
3. Limited ATONEMENT
4. Irresistible Grace
5. Perseverance of the Saints
An amalgamation of all religious groups coming together for the purpose of unity at the expense of truth and doctrine.
This is the study of the church: Its origin, composition, nature and purpose (Matthew 16:18).
This term describes perfectly what Christ did on the cross for God's elect.† It worked in that all for whom He died will be saved.
This means to select or choose and refers to God electing a people to be saved (I1 Thessalonians 2:13).
The study of future and final events such as the hereafter and the second coming of Jesus Christ.
The plan of God put forth in eternity concerning all things and events that would take place in time (Matthew 10:29-30).
An act whereby God consummates and climaxes man's salvation in glory (I John 3:1-2).
This teaches that man must hear and believe the Gospel before he can be regenerated.
They believed that God can be known and approached through knowledge. There were two extreme groups of Gnostics: Those who believed Jesus Christ was too divine to be human; and those who believed He was too human to be divine.
The unmerited favor of God where there has been merited condemnation (Dr. Peter Connolly). It is the free favor and unearned goodness of God extended toward a wicked sinner who deserves death and eternal condemnation.
The study of the doctrine of sin (I John 3:4; 5:17).
The study of the laws that govern Bible interpretation (II Timothy 2:15).
The study of sermon preparation and outline (Nehemiah 8:8).
††††††††††† Hyper means above or beyond as hypertension means high blood pressure. The term means those who exxagerate and go beyond what John Calvin taught.
Hypo means below or beneath as a hypodermic needle goes beneath the skin. The term deals with the incarnation of Jesus Christ. It delves into the person of Christ being both God and man (Colossians 2:9).
This means that Christ could not have sinned (Hebrews 4:15).
††††††††††† The teaching that man experiences regeneration or the new birth because of his answering the Gospel invitation.
††††††††††† This means that man cannot successfully resist the effectual call of the Holy Spirit (Psalm 110:3).
††††††††††† To charge or place to one's account (Romans 4:3-6, II Corinthians 5:21).
††††††††††† An act wherebY God pronounces righteous the believing sinner. He does this by imputing Christ's righteousness to him (Romans 3:24-28 ; II Corinthians 5:19).
This is also known as Definite Atonement or Particular Redemption. Christ did not die for all men, but rather for the elect of God. He laid down His life for the sheep, not for the goats (John 10:15-16 ; Isaiah 53:11).
This view of regeneration teaches that God alone brings the impartation of spiritual life into the dead sinner. The sinner does not cooperate with God in this matter (John 1:13).
The belief that there is but one God (Deuteronomy 6:4).
An attribute that speaks of God being all powerful. God has no limitations.
An attribute that speaks of God being everywhere at the same time. God is not limited by time or space.
An attribute that speaks of God knowing all things hidden and revealed.
Adam committed the first sin of the human race, and that sin with its consequences was passed on to every human being; thus, men are born sinners, and as a result practice sin (Romans 5:12 ; Psalm 51:5 ; Ephesians 2: 3 ).
The belief that God and His universe are synonomous; that is, God comes across in nature.
This means that Christ could have sinned but chose not.
Refers to those who believe in baptizing or sprinkling infants.
The teachings of Pelagius (354? - 418 A.D.). He was a British monk who believed man had the ability to convert and save himself. He denied the doctrine of original sin.
The study of the person and work of the Holy Spirit.
The doctrine that there are many gods.
The teaching that the preaching of the Gospel will bring in the kingdom on earth, after which Christ will return.
An aspect of salvation that deals with the believer ultimately becoming like the Lord Jesus Christ at His return (Romans 8:29).
The teaching that Christ must come back to the earth the second time before the kingdom will be set up (Revelation 19:11-16 ; 20:6).
PERSEVERANCE OF SAINTS
This speaks of human responsibility in salvation. The believer will never quit on God. If he does, it only shows he never knew anything about the grace of God (Matthew 24:13).
PRESERVATION OF SAINTS
It is God alone Who keeps the believer eternally saved. God's preservation causes man's perseverance (John 10:28).
This is the grace of God that goes before salvation. The sinner is kept and brought safely to the day of his salvation.
This word means satisfaction. Since all sin is directed against God, justice must be satisfied if forgiveness is granted. Such satisfaction came through Christ's death at Calvary (Isaiah 53:11).
This deals with God's care and control over Hs creation. It involves the coming to pass in time of those things which God foreordained in eternity.
A term erroneously used to describe what Christ did at the cross. He did not secure the salvation of anybody, but simply made it possible for everyone to be saved if they wanted to. This doctrine exalts man's free will. It also weakens the atonement with an atonement that does not atone.
One of two results of the atonement. One result of the atonement is propitiation, the satisfaction of God toward the sinner. The other result is reconciliation which is the removal of alienation from the sinner (II Corinthians 5:18).
It is an act whereby the Holy Spirit imparts spiritual life to a spiritually dead sinner thus enabling him to repent and embrace Christ as Lord (Ephesians 2:1; Titus 3:5).
The doctrine which deals with God passing by some and leaving them to their own sinful pleasures and pursuits (Romans 1:24-28).
Those holding to a special day of rest and worship, whether on Saturday or Sunday.
This refers to the teachings of Sabellius (261 A. D.) who denied the Holy Trinity. He believed the Godhead was one person in Jesus Christ. An example of this today is the "Jesus Only" Pentecostals.
This is a process of deliverance from sin. It involves the past, present and future. Man is saved from the penalty, polution and presence of sin (II Corinthians 1:10).
An act whereby God imparts holiness to His people. There are two aspects of this: Positional and practical or progressive.
The teaching and doctrine of the origin, person and work of Satan (I Peter 5:8).
Those doctrines and teachings that have to do with God saving sinners. The term literally means the study of salvation.
This doctrine relates primarily to the regeneration of a sinner. Those holding to this position believe the sinner cooperates with God in his regeneration.
The Jewish commentary of the Old Testament.
This contains Jewish prophecies of the Old Testament.
It means the law and is a Jewish term referring to the first five books of the Bible.
Also known as Dominionism or Reconstructionism. Theos = God;† Nomos = law; thus God's law. It has to do with the replacement of man's laws with God's laws in society.
An Old Testament appearance of God in form and shape.
Every faculty of man's being has been contaminated with sin as a result of the fall of Adam in the Garden of Eden. It includes the mind, will and emotions of man. There is no part of man's being that has not been touched by sin rendering him spiritually hopeless, helpless and dead (Isaiah 1:5-6).
The elements of the Lord's Supper are actually and materially transferred into the real flesh and blood of Christ. This is the Roman Catholic position.
God's election of His people unto salvation is unconditional. That is, it is not contingent upon what man is or what he will do (Ephesians 1:4).
The view of Biblical inspiration which teaches that every Word of God is true and without error. The Bible is the verbally inspired Word of God because it is the Word of God, not the word of man (Psalm 68:11;119:89,140.